We gave a brief overview of creating and managing documents, creating sections and inserting equations in Getting Started. This document is supposed to explain all features of the document window and its drawers in great detail:
  • sections and subsections
  • table of contents
  • abstract
  • clone
  • context
  • emphases
  • enumerations
  • images
  • latex regions
The screenshot below shows a typical Cassiopeia document with text, sections and potentially a couple of equations. Choose Database - Open Document from the menu or press Command-O to open any existing document or create a new one with Command-N as a test bed for this tutorial.


Publications usually have an inner structure of sections and subsections. You can create a section by choosing SDM - Create Section from the menu or simply hitting Command-Shift-S. A panel appears and asks for the title of the section.

Enter a title and hit Enter. A corresponding section title is inserted into the document.
Alternatively we could just have written the title into the document then positioned the cursor onto it and hit Command-Shift-S. Type in some text and hit Command-Shift-S again to create another section.

The just created section is by default a sibling of the prior section. Let's assume we want the second section to be a subsection of the first section. You can make it one by setting the cursor on the second section and choosing SDM - Section Down from the menu or just hitting Command-Shift-D.
The second section title is redrawn with a smaller font indicating it to be a subsection. If you make up your mind and want it to be a sibling again position the cursor on it and choose SDM - Section Up from the menu or hit Command-Shift-U. If you want to remove the section titte attribute from the line of text position the cursor on it and press Command-r. The line becomes normal text again.
Get back onto the title and press Command-Shift-S to make it a section again and Command-Shift-D to lower its level by one. Then type insome more text.
Click anywhere into your document and press Command-p to open the print panel. On the print panel enable Title Page and Table of contents.

This may also raise the following inspector panel which allows you to set values for the LaTeX title page.

Get back to the print panel and click on the brown wheel in the top right corner to start LaTeX generation and compilation. The resulting PDF is opened automatically in your default viewer (most likely Scroll to the table of contents in the PDF and see how the inner structure of your document looks like on paper.

Get back to the document and add a few more sections.
Then regenerate LaTeX for the document.

Table of Contents

Click anywhere into your document and choose SDM - Show TOC from the menu or press Command-Shift-G . The table of contents drawer is extended to the left.
Each entry in this drawer represents a section in the document. A doubleclick on one of the section titles brings you directly to the corresponding section in the document textview. This allows efficient navigation between sections. A little arrow on the left of a section title indicates that the section has subsections. Clicking on such an arrow expands or collapses the subsections.

The sections of a document can be reordered by drag and drop in the table of contents drawer or made a subsection of another section. Press Command-Shift-G again to withdraw the TOC drawer if it is no longer needed.


Each document can have an abstract. An abstract is just text potentially containing equations and emphases but no subsections. Click into your document and press Command-Shift-A to open the abstract drawer in order to edit the abstract.
Choose Command-p and click on the brown wheel to generate LaTeX. A corresponding abstract page is inserted into the PDF.


Assume you are working on a section of a large document and while doing so need to view a part written earlier. You could scroll up to this part of the document using the scroll-wheel of your mouse. You could also make use of the table of contents drawer to quickly jump back and forth between the section you are currently working on and the other section you have written earlier. However, you could work more efficiently - less interruptive - if you saw the earlier section while writing the current one both at the same time. This is possible using the clone view. Choose Command-Shift-O to extend the clone drawer to the right of your document window and find therein a read only copy of your document.
Use the scroll wheel of your mouse or the scroll bar in the clone drawer to scroll to any part of your document for review while uninterruptedly working on the document in the document view at the same time.


Choose Command-Shift-C to open the context drawer of your document which lets you assign document categories and classes for mathematical identifiers.
Each document can be assigned as many document categories as you want. Open Core - Document Categories, add as many categories as you find suitable

and Ctrl-drag the categories you want to assign to the upper tableview of the context drawer. Don't forget to click into your document after the drag operation to reactive your document window and then to hit save to save changes to the database.
After assigning categories to a document those categories can be used to retrieve documents in the document manager. Press Command-o to open the document manager and select one or multiple categories and click in Fetch.

All suitable documents and books should appear. Doubleclick on an entry in the tableview to open the document or book. To remove the catgeory selection in order to fetch all documents again - independet of assigned categories - Command-click on a category in the tableview. This deselects it.


You might want to emphasize a word or a small range of text in your document. The idea of LaTeX and especially of Cassiopeia is to concentrate on content. You do not want to wonder about which font to use or which font size to select. You just want to emphasize a range of text and let LaTeX decide what font and size to use when it comes to printing. To emphasize a word just doubleclick on it or select some range of text with the mouse and then press Command-Shift-E.
Press Command-p to open the print panel and check out the LaTeXed version of your document. Note that LaTeX has its own way of presenting emphasized text.

If you want to remove the accentuation of text again click on the emphasized text and press Command-r.


You might want to have a list of items in your document. No special formatting functions are required to do so. Just write down the list and use the centered dot to mark the beginning of a list entry.
When it comes to printing Cassiopeia looks for lines of text that begin with a centered dot followed by a space followed by some text and automatically generates LaTeX code for a corresponding unordered list.


You might have an application that allows to draw electronic circuits like or you want to include a screenshot from your scope into your document. Whatever source you have you can include images (pdf, tiff, png,...) easily by just dragging them from into your document. The image will be inserted at the current cursor position and automatically centered
You might want to Command-Shift-Doubleclick on such an image to open the figure inspector. The figure inspector allows to set a caption for the image and some figure options that are honored when LaTeX for the document is generated.

Read Links and Bibliography to learn how to create references to inserted images and other text objects.

LaTeX Regions

The equation editor of Cassiopeia is MathML content markup based. This means that equations inserted into the document have mathematical meaning and can thus be processed by the integrated symbolic algebra system or plotted by the 2D graph engine. However, the content markup approach comes also with a drawback. An author might in rare cases find himself in a situation where an equation (or other kind of text structure) is to be added to the document that cannot be expressed by any means known by Cassiopeia, e.g.

If the LaTeX representation of such a text structure is known the LaTeX code can directly be typed into the document and the corresponding range of text can then be assigned the pure LaTeX attribute. Type the following into your document

\[ \overbrace{a + \underbrace{b+c} +d} \]

select this range of text and press Command-Shift-X. The previously selected text will be redrawn in a dark gray color to indicate that the pure latex attribute was assigned to the region. When LaTeX code for the document is generated this region of text is copied as is and thus produces the desired result in the resulting PDF. The pure latex attribute (like any other text attribute) can be removed again with Command-r.

We recommend to read the following documents now:

Advanced topics for technical users are discussed in
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